Earth Day


Earth Day


Fried Food Bonanza at the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk + Earth Day

Just returned from taking my children to the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk – something I have been able to avoid doing for years. My 9-year-old, Guèrin, was adamant that this year he was going – with or without me. Friends suggested I acquiesce so he’d have a “good thing” to look forward to. Me, the environmentalist, was not sure it was a “good thing” at all.

I don’t like big commercial anything, plastic, and artificial amusement. I am all for a good time! However, in this case, I knew the food situation alone would have me disturbed. The first pass walking through the amusement park was a hard go. The flashing lights, plastic everywhere, fake food, and a lot of people spending money on things I subjectively didn’t believe were healthy was hard to take. My two oldest stepped in to lead the charge with their younger sibling, knowing full well I was struggling. Once I caught my breath, I walked through with another environmentalist. He was not struggling the way I was, but was willing to discuss what was on my mind. As a strategist, I’m looking for ways to communicate authentically to reach people to help educate hoping those messages will be acted upon for greater health, wellness, and for the environment. The problem is, as we all know, when we think of only ourselves and survival of our own person or those close to us only, we’re going to have a negative impact on others and the environment. It takes making it bigger than all of us individually, and it is. If I were to swap out every food stand with sustainable food and zero waste serving pieces, that would be a great start. Swap the plastic toys and games for good old fashioned ones with wholesome prizes? The rides, hm, not sure what could be done there. But that isn’t really doing enough to address the basic problem. If you are living without the big picture and you can’t envision how to afford it or do it and still enjoy life, any messaging is not going to create positive change.

As much as I love the idea of the free market system, and allowing enterprise to work the way it has in industrialized nations, it seems evident that systems must be in place to mitigate environmental damage that is hurting the planet, people, and is putting in jeopardy a sustainable life on Earth long term. I do not believe this is a partisan issue even though it has been made one. Republicans were the early environmentalists in the US. We need to find middle ground and see that our values are to create a healthy, vibrant, environmentally sound country and world for all living things. There is no religion or belief-system that I know of that condones destruction of the Earth, resources, and life. We must find a way. Our government will need to lead the charge with each of us opting in. Our companies will have to make the numbers work creatively. We need to have faith in our country and others in our intelligence, creativity, and ability to solve complex problems for good. There can be no other shared common interest and goal that should come before this. It is our responsibility as gifted as we are to be here to live wisely and do the right thing. Happy Earth Day!


Sustainable Living


Sustainable Living

Lisa Durant, author

It is coming up on the one-year anniversary of Green Things Simply Done, the blog. As is always the case in life, things have evolved for good. In my first post “Welcome,” I offered this quote from Tennyson:

“Though much is taken, much abides; and though we are not now that strength which in old days
 moved earth and heaven; that which we are, we are;
 one equal temper of heroic hearts,made weak by time and fate, but strong in will – to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.”

I explained what was to come in the blog and the book. It is amazing to look back and see that this quote is as important to me as the day I first heard it, the day I wrote it in the blog, and again now. I believe that no matter what occurs in life, you must be strong in will, and you must never yield in efforts to do good.

The process of taking what to many seemed an insurmountable amount of information across every category we call “life,” and distilling it into one book, called “Green Things Simply Done” has been a passion deep and worthwhile, and has certainly demanded a heroic, unwavering heart, mind, and body. I cannot think of a better representation of how to do life well, other than the way Tennyson instructs.

Green Things Simply Done, both the book and blog, have two distinct goals:

  1. To do good for people and the Earth
  2. To outline what sustainable living is all about

I am sure point one is clear. Point two means something more than simply eco-friendly or “green” living. Sustainable living is is about the environment, but is also about choices involving health, home, relationships, community, gatherings, travel, work, and giving back. This is why I have covered topic areas that pertain to this way of living. In Green Things Simply Done, the book, I cover how the power of developing a clearly focused, well-intentioned plan results in a life by your design, and there are exercises that take you through that customization. From there, you can say “good bye” to detours off course, and any unnecessary waste of time, money, energy, and natural resources. My economics background paired with design means smart, well-intentioned, precise investing in everything yields a superior result for the individual, for relationships, for life, and for the planet.

In the blog, I am going to cover topics that pertain to holistic sustainable living – not just one slice of it. I do not mean to minimize the sustainable movement; I am suggesting it be expanded as in doing so, we will all move toward independent and shared goals.

If there is one thing I can encourage you to start doing is to ask yourself if you really “need” something. If you don’t, or it isn’t feeling right, leave it. Give yourself time to think, do not just react and buy or binge in some way that is not serving you. Our planet and health is in crisis over this issue. This isn’t punitive; it is a way of tuning into yourself to find out what is at heart center, and making wise decisions because you know. Each of us having a little more faith in that process would go a very long way.

To the road less traveled by…




Papyrus 2 Lisa Durant

Quite interesting that the dictionary and thesaurus don’t think grace has a thing to do with forgiveness. What is grace?  I love my personal idea of grace, and it is fine if you don’t agree.

I’ve heard about grace all my life. As a kid what you said before a meal, while learning manners and etiquette, in finishing school, as a debutante, and in religion. Grace is strength and depth of character. Grace you afford yourself, and you extend to others when they break you or others in some way.

The grace of a ballerina, a skier, or a runner is magnificent beauty at work, but it can’t occur without a huge amount of strength, composure, determination, and forgiveness. Why forgiveness? Think about grace. To absorb shock – contact with the ground – your body must forgive. Take and absorb the blow. In life, it is just the same. Just like a downhiller, you move in a way that is strong and sleek and take in life’s road bumps. Our knees better be nimble for the shocks. If you can flex and extend with life the way a downhiller does, or an SUV off-road, your life is going to be a whole lot better I assure you.

One way to go about this is to prepare well. Set your mind that you are pure beauty, strength and power, and that you will bob and weave with life like an elite athlete. Nothing is going to throw you off your game, ever. Many ask me how I have gone through certain experiences in my life, and it is with power of mind and body that has allowed me to be resilient to charge ahead. This week, the person that brought my 3 children into the world asked me just how I’ve done it all these years, and how it is possible to be at such a place of peace. I said it was the athlete, and much was born in the blood. She said, I need to write the full story, especially about the last 14 years. Ah, well I’ll need convincing that this would help a lot of people.

For now, lean in and figure out how you create grace for yourself – powerful, mighty, spirited. Long, lean and stunning. Shine – every single person is meant to. Tell someone else how they shine, and how you care. When someone breaks your heart or devastates your expectations, do not let go. Lean in. Think. What do you want for real? Do you have the strength to forgive, to extend grace to someone and yourself to persevere in any situation? Can you go deeper to look beyond something that could hurt a lot, to see you have to go beyond your threshold of pain to get where you want to go? I am willing to share one thing from my experience of pain in life that only comes from years and acquired wisdom. Go deeper. Go deeper into the pain, into the unknown, don’t fear it, find out what is at heart center, let that be your only guide. Trust yourself. Do things nobody else thinks you should. It is worth doing because the worst thing that can happen is to react to pain quickly and lose things you are willing to fight for in your life. Athletes do. This is grace.

Time Will Come Today


Time Will Come Today

California drought

Nicholas Kristof queried New York Times readers to discover what the most neglected issue was leading into 2014. Out of 1300 readers that responded on a broad range of issues, the winner, or biggest loser, was climate change. For those of us that work in this space, this is a sobering fact. Since 2007, the number of Americans that believe global warming is happening has dropped. A recession does not mean abandon what is true. We should be outraged at what damage finance (and other entities, ah government) has done to our Earth. That was quite a gamble. I don’t know any belief or value system that says greed is a stellar attribute, especially at the expense of Earth. Nothing should have taken our eye off the ball, but it did, didn’t it? Apparently, Americans are more inclined to believe that aliens have visited Earth at 77%, while only 44% believe that humans are causing climate change – what? That isn’t a funny joke Mr. Kristof, but it isn’t a joke.

I live in Northern California. We are having the driest and warmest winter on record. We have already had 30 “spare the air” days with a month left to go. Air quality is at an all time low. Governor Brown of California declared a state of emergency last week. 2013 was the California’s driest year in recorded history. Please click here for statistics.

In 2013, San Francisco had a record breaking low rainfall of 5”; the previous low was 9”. Sierra snowpack water content is 84% below average this season, the source of one-third of California’s water. Complicating matters, moving water requires energy and accounts for 19% of the state’s electric expense, and 32% of natural gas. The decrease in hydroelectric power means greater use of fossil fuels, and more increased greenhouse gases. Ah Houston, we have a problem. Please click here for statistics.

No matter where you look on the globe, extreme weather is touching everyone, be it hot, cold, or in-between. At Christmas, it was quite a site to see snow in Egypt while Sweden had none. 97% of scientists believe that climate change is caused by human activity. What will it take for everyone to understand that the drastic disruptive and destructive changes in weather are due to what we humans do?

Looking at our priorities worldwide, I can’t imagine a topic more pressing than the environment. Nothing will matter if this is not addressed. It is neither a partisan issue, nor one where there should be disagreement among countries (cue the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement). It is nobody’s right to destroy the Earth for profit and personal consumption. Of the over 7 billion people on the Earth, who was given the rights to destroy the Earth? Nobody. Civil liberties and citizen responsibility – let’s start here. Nothing we do collectively matters without clean air, water, and food, and this isn’t happening. Disease occurs because of it. Which is more sensible, a Band-Aid medical solution with more drugs and toxins, or addressing the root cause? The unhealthy denial globally isn’t going to fly. We must address this now. The Industrial Revolution has brought good things, but it is well on the way to being our demise unless we stop. History will repeat itself. We are arrogant to believe it won’t.

I cannot think of anything more important than to demand a fully sustainable lifestyle that echoes in every aspect of life. Make it different personally, send a message, stand up for what is right, and let that radiate to everyone you touch in life. At home, work, school, community, and at large with what you expect of business, government, finance, and the world. Everyone that works for the environment knows the same thing; we need each and every person to stand up to do the right thing. Do not for a moment believe you are powerless to affect change. Show the world you mean business and do this. Look into a child’s eyes, or the beauty that surrounds you and see if you can conceivably explain why destruction of the Earth makes sense. This is my second wish, a very large one, for 2014 and for every year to come.

Let it rain, at least in California…




Wishing Flower Did anyone else roll into the new year without resolutions wondering why no clear resolutions were coming? Feeling slightly bad about that? I did. I needed 2 weeks. I hope I’m not alone. Well, I could say I want to eat more kale, save the world, discover how to fix ACL-torn knees, or how to maximize ski days. Enough of that. The time brought clarity, inspiration, and a return to what I love most. That is my simple wish for all of you for this year – clarity, inspiration, favorite things, and love!

When I worked at Martha Stewart Living, the audience often expressed concern about how to do Martha’s calendar or basically anything or everything in the book. Many thought it was too much and not possible, bordering on insane. After a moment to compose, we would explain how it was Martha’s intention and ours to share passions and things we loved with the hope to inspire others. During my time with Martha, one of the more memorable stories was about her inspiration to paint her Turkey Hill home in blue and green shades because of her love of her South American Araucana chickens. Later, this became a paint line. I believe that the beauty of that story is not just in the colors; it is the inspiration. Martha was using biomimicry – she viewed something gorgeous in nature and used it to design paint colors for the home. She saw something and shared her passion as an expression of herself for others. If you like the colors or not isn’t the point, you could have decided to try white, another home design, or become more aware of things around you to bring something enriching to your life. It would be interesting to know the metric on how many people through the years have done something different because of this story.

When I was a wee bit younger, I had a fear of flying. My family had an interesting tradition with flying, my father was a recreational pilot. It started with a flight from California to Arizona and some not-so-fun turbulence near Palm Springs that required an emergency landing. That was the beginning of one of many in my life. When I was on Semester at Sea in college, I remember 2 flights, one on Air India in India, and the other on Aeroflot in Russia that had us all wondering if those were our last moments. On the Aeroflot flight, I had to help classmates that were freaking out. I started singing, unheard of and equally terrifying itself, “My Favorite Things” from Sound of Music. I had to do something to help. I had learned a technique to shift focus when I felt fear so thought I’d give it a go. I asked my friends to start recounting things they loved. It worked. It has worked for me. I ditched fear of anything years ago. On the subject of flying, after age 20, I dreamed of becoming a helicopter or jet pilot and watched films and wondered what maneuvers at what speed I could do. Speed and flight must be genetic.

What I want to inspire you to do is to focus your lens on what you love in life. Go back in time and recall what made you happy, when you felt great, when you achieved what you wanted in life. Try to connect the thoughts with images. Write them down if you like. Connect to your youth, your favorite things, and what worked. Every single person on Earth has incredible talent, beauty and the opportunity to love and share. Find it, feel it, give it. Help others that are struggling to find what they are looking for. It is the greatest new year’s wish I have for everyone.

May the road rise up to meet you en route,

Bûche de Noël


Bûche de Noël

Buche de Noel

A Bûche de Noël is one of the most notable traditions of a French Christmas. Mastering the art of making a Bûche is exciting and fun. Many recipes exist, but this one is far and away my favorite by Jacques Torres. I changed the filling and buttercream a bit, but I must say his pastry cream is divine! The best I have ever had. For this rendition, you prepare a spongecake, flavored simple sugar, chocolate pastry cream, a light chocolate buttercream, and meringues for the mushrooms.

Lisa Buche

One of the more important lessons of cooking is to know how to get egg whites to lift as the recipe requires, read carefully. When recipes say ‘fold,’ that is a big caution to go super easy with a spatula – gently lifting up and turning back in. If you don’t go about this lightly, you’ll smash those gorgeous white peaks. When you make pastry cream, be very mindful of the eggs on the stovetop, you do not want scrambled eggs!

Vintage tree for buche

When decorating your Bûche, you have limitless options. With the light brown buttercream, I used a cake fork to simulate the look of bark. I used dark chocolate shavings, a dusting of sifted powdered sugar, and the meringues primarily. Mini-vintage Christmas trees are on top. I love a natural look, and this is it. You can search for many other decorating ideas. I like to set the stage for serving. In this case, I took a large vintage wood cooking board, lined it with parchment, and then added a touch of snow, pine branches, pinecones, and a few vintage ornaments.

Buche ornament

Before the medieval era, leading up to the Winter Solstice, it was customary to burn logs, pinecones, holly, and ivy to celebrate the warmth of the season, and soon to come longer periods of sunlight. The ashes were kept as good luck to protect from lightning. In the 19th Century, the Bûche de Noël became a French symbol for Christmas, celebration with friends and family, the warmth of the season, and the new year to come.

Joyeux Noël!

The Tree


The Tree

Christmas Tree

A Christmas tree is one of the most fun adventures during the holiday season. If you are single, well, choosing your tree is easy. But, when there are many inputs about ‘the tree,’ the process can take far longer. This year, it meant 2 days of searching, and then there was a settlement agreement as 2 parties had vastly different ideas. For me as the designer, it is hard to let loose of what I think is good design for a tree. I have designed and decorated so many trees and homes for the holidays – I see this as an important endeavor that defines the style that year for the holidays, sets the tone.

The kids initially wanted to decorate the tree the standard way with ornaments collected through the years. The last three years though, I won out to do a designed tree. When I laid out my design proposal for them, they thought it would be super cool, like the other trees, and they felt ownership with parts they could make. The plan was simple – white and silver. White sewn stars, silver bells tied with sailor’s twine, steel mini-buckets, pinecones dusted a bit white, and vintage white ornaments. The base is wrapped with French vintage linen in white. The kids were blown away when it was done, and now say we should never do a ‘traditional’ tree – good news to me that design is securely in place with them.

One of the most important things to do with a tree is to light it well. This is an art form. Green wires are much better as they can be concealed. You can get LED lights that are fantastic. I start from the bottom up, and wrap each branch from the center – outwards. You want the depth of lighting for a brilliant look. You proceed this way all the way up to the top of the tree. If you really want to push it, you can wrap the trunk with lights. The result is amazing from the start with this kind of lighting – there is not much more you have to do with the tree. The season is about light, so I think this is a place to highlight.

Bell, ornaments

You can find larger jingle bells at most craft stores, and white rugged twine to tie them. The vintage ornaments came from the Alameda Antique market. The silver buckets were harder to find so small, but came from an upscale craft store. You can try a hardware store for small paint cans too, and see if they have them small enough. Paint cans are super neat for floral arrangements too.

PinconesThe pinecones dusted in white also came from the Alameda Antiques market, and are vintage.


The large white cloth star at the top of the tree, and smaller ones below were sewn and stuffed sustainably, and hung with white string.

This tree is quite special, and reflects sustainable design, a unique approach that is simple, and the impact is magical. It looks heavenly with the white and silver; reflective of the season.

This is just a sample of what you can do to your taste with your tree. Last year’s tree was full of all natural elements – spices in small mason jars, cinnamon sticks tied with twine, cedar branches, pinecones wired on, and whisps of long grasses. With the heat of the lights, the spice scent infused the home.

If you go for a traditional tree, fantastic, but you can alway try another tree for fun, even a small one, and create something different. Or, kids can do their own magical candy, cookie, and popcorn tree.

A few basics: glass ornaments reflect the light and help create a light reflection, make sure to check your lights to see that they work before you string them, don’t plug in too many lights to one plug or you could blow out the line, and make sure to water the tree!

Merry Christmas to all!

The Most Quintessentially French Food


The Most Quintessentially French Food

Ines dough

The story goes like this. You get what you get when you involve yourself in a child’s school project. Inès lugged home from school an immense book on Steinbeck to do a biography report. Knowing that she hadn’t read Steinbeck, yet was at a college level for reading in 5th grade, I wondered if perhaps she might want to break stride for something more diverse. The last reads have been pretty heavy “save the world things” that adults read.

At the library, I laid out just about every biography I could think of that might be more interesting, my apologies to Steinbeck lovers. If it was Salinger, well then, fine. I nearly dropped dead when she wanted to read a biography on Julia Child. I am a gourmet cook, and I wanted so much to pass on this tradition to my children. I knew Julia, and I was so happy that Inès wanted to get to know her through the book and cookbooks.

Inès went through the book at lightning speed, shouting out if I knew all these facts – amusing. At the conclusion, she wanted to cook much of what she read. And for school, she had to bring the book to life, and decided to find the most quintessentially French food to make and share. Since this was a big moment in history, I gave her Julia Child’s 50th Anniversary version of The Art of French Cooking. The dedication was about traditions of cooking, and all that could be shared with others through cooking.

We bantered back and forth about what was the most significant French food. There was no question, it was the baguette to be served the way French children have le petite déjeuner (breakfast). The task was an exciting proposition for us both, I had always wanted to make fresh baguettes, but hadn’t. By chance has anyone looked at Julia’s recipe for baguettes? It is extensive. In order to just prep the oven, I went on a wild goose chase for quarry tiles so that we would establish a proper baker’s oven. Inès at times wanted to go the easy way with this, but I asked if Julia would, of course the answer was “no.”

Kneading bread

Flour + Water + Yeast + Salt = The 4 Elements of the Baguette (wondering about the other necessities of strength of character, patience, physical strength, and ability to go with the flow…)

I can happily say that we sensibly did a trial run, turning out 2 amazing loaves. However, the element of how much is enough water proves to be an issue of sense, not what the recipe says. Round 2 for school was perfect, a touch more water. Going through the 3 risings, 3 kneadings and formings by hand, and the near religious experience is worthwile. The baguettes spread with French butter, jam, or Nutella left 5th graders quite exuberant. It is all worth it! Cheers!

Stretching dough

Stretching dough to scale per Julia.

Bread cooking

Bread baking on quarry tiles dusted with cornmeal.

Bread done Finished!

Inès wanted me to share that while I was creating the proper baker’s oven with the quarry tiles, that a potholder dropped on the heating elements and caught fire. She, clearly an inexperienced cook, freaked out. I easily grabbed it with tongs, slung it to the sink, and douced it with water. That is quite alright, cooking should be comedy as it was with Julia. Cracking up in the kitchen is a must!

Inès learned a great lesson, she could save the world and turn out amazing food at the same time!

Inspirations for the Season


Inspirations for the Season

Screen Shot 2013-11-19 at Tue, November 19, 2.10.00 PM

Have the Christmas lists started to appear in your house? The conversation about the Thanksgiving menu to cater to all tastes imaginable? Turkey, no turkey, vegan, gluten-free – we have made life quite complex. Who’s coming to visit, whose not. Hurray, school is out! Does that mean we can sleep in a bit? No.

The flurry of the season has begun. At many stores, Christmas started in mid-October, blowing straight past Thanksgiving in the US.

I would love to inspire you to return to simple things, and savor the season and release demands that are not necessary. Nobody said it had to be this way, and that we had to celebrate this time by making ourselves busier than ever. Not sure about you, but the refrain I so often hear is “I am so busy, so I can’t…”

This is a time to reflect and enjoy the change of seasons, the holidays, and the love that is all around us. In the spirit of simple things, here are a few ideas to take a pause for you and your family.

  • Enjoy a hike on any trail near you – kick leaves, or throw snowballs if you have snow. Return to your youth and the experience the wonder of everything you see. You can even make a collection of things you discover, and display them in your home.
  • Take time for you by making a spa at home, at your leisure. Try making your own treatments from natural ingredients. A great book and a fire make cozy companions for a truly relaxing experience.
  • Make a recipe that you have been excited to try. Share with those you love.
  • Think about some small thing you could do to help for a cause that you like.
  • Take time to flip through old photographs you haven’t seen in awhile.
  • Journal your thoughts and dreams with a great glass or wine, eggnog, or other favorite beverage. Write away and don’t let anything hinder you, thinking something is not possible. Find one thing, and take a step each day towards making that dream yours.
  • Hug the ones you are with!

Hippies, Preppies – Hybrid?


Hippies, Preppies – Hybrid?


It is really funny to hear my son state that I am a “hippie” because I go to what he deems “crunchy” organic food stores. He gets on a good roll making fun of me – it cracks me up. Likewise, it is amusing when I go to these stores – the preppy looking thing that just entered a place where Polo shirt freaks aren’t supposed to go. Both are experiencing a disconnect, but I am not. Being “for” the environment or good health is neither a “hippie” or “preppy” or “other” thing – it is for EVERYONE! Since I am in this mix, I feel I can speak to it. We all have a story that draws us close to the environment. Think back, I bet you have a story when you were young or now, where you felt tied to the outdoors and health.

My family had a home in Colorado, and from a young age the mountains became home to us. We skied, hiked, mountain biked, and forged streams fly-fishing. We were (and are) rascals and loved riding ATVs all over – sorry not environmentally friendly looking back. My parents had lots of fun trying to get us in from the outdoors as if they wanted to anyway. 2 muddy kids where a complete hose off was protocol to enter the house. Bottom line, I loved the outdoors from a young age. It was all amazing – the mountains, streams, and ocean. There is nothing manmade that can parallel the natural beauty and diversity of this Earth. Later, I was able to travel extensively to study in countries all over the world. The world became even more gorgeous and diverse with these experiences, and the impact was so strong that I returned never to be the same again.

I don’t know about you, but I am frankly tired of some power players telling us how others mean to hurt us, and are vastly different – I know they are not. This is purely a political play. Why renewable energy can’t be, and being forward thinking on the environment. Some countries are doing it, and doing it quite well. I find it hard to believe the US is dragging behind, but we can look in one streamlined direction – big oil, lobbyists, and politicians. These changes should have started years ago and didn’t. It reminds me of the argument with tobacco entities when science was so clear about the correlation between smoking and lung cancer.

Regarding health, we know for certain that toxicity in our environment and in our food is problematic. Tired of hearing about friends and family diagnosed with cancer or other disease? It isn’t just stress or genetics. For kicks, try a toxicity report on yourself and see what you discover in your own body. While these things are serious, we can do something and should do something to STOP this madness. Other countries have. Other countries need to STOP as well – China, India, others…

The third sector, that is the non-profit or NGO sector exists in economies to do what the private and public sectors cannot, or because of what they have done that needs repair. I wonder what your outdoor story is. If you look around, how do you feel about what you see with pollution alone? I have to imagine you want good health. If you have children, I am sure you want the best for them. If things have turned for the worse this badly in my own lifetime, I cannot imagine what will occur in the next 10-20 years if we remain on this track. Take a peek at any big oil company’s mission statement and see if you think they are living up to their mission. Explicitly not to harm others or the environment, they say. You know where the money is coming from I am quite sure.

The solution to these issues can be as simple as each of us standing up to demand what is right. The government has not done it, and part of the private sector is making it worse focused on profits at all costs. We need the support of our NGOs and their hard work on this issue to help clean up our world for good. Find one you like, and dig in. If there is a way to change things, this is it. Hoping good friends in the private sector with help with funding those groups!

Here’s to clear skies, clean waters, a litter-free environment, products and services designed with “Cradle to Cradle” consideration, and good health for all.